Friday, 30 December 2022




Programming language

We know language is the media through which we can communicate with other individuals.
This programming language helps a user to communicate with a computer. A user can instruct a computer by using one of the many programming languages.

We can also say that with the help of programming language one can write a program for a computer or can develop software.

Types of Programming Language 

There are three levels of programming language which are explained below.
Machine Level Language

The language which uses binary code i.e. 0 & 1 as its code, called machine level language. Here 0 means OFF and 1 means ON. This language was developed and used during the 1st Generation. So also called 1GL. This was very difficult to write, learn, and compile a program using machine language. Machine Level Language is also called as Binary Language.

Assembly Level Language

The language which uses mnemonic code along with some grammatical notations is called Assembly Level Language. Here mnemonic means a short form of a long word. For example add for addition, div for division, mul for multiplication, etc.. This language was developed during the 2nd generation, so also called 2GL (2nd Generation Language). This language was quite easy in comparison to machine level language.

High-Level Language

This is the language that uses our daily used English like language, grammatical notations, and mathematical symbols. This is a very easy form of language to learn, write, and execute a program. This was developed during the third generation so also called 3GL. There are differences from High-Level Languages. like 
  • BASIC 
  • C++
  • JAVA, etc.

The software can be defined as the collection of instructions written in a particular order to perform tasks. There are two types of software 

System Software

Application Software

System Software

The software which is meant for the computer system or designed to fulfill the requirements of a computer system is called System Software.

A- Language Translator 

This is a program that translates a user is given code into machine code and vice versa.

There are three types of language translators.


This is one kind of language translator which translates high-Level Language into machine level language and vice versa. It reads each line of a program and then interprets it. 

If it finds any error then stops its execution till the error is removed and this process continues till the end. So an interpreter takes too much time on the whole to execute a program.

2. Compiler 

This is another kind of language translator which translates high-Level Language into machine level language and vice versa. Its function is equivalent to the interpreter, but the way it compiles a program is quite different.
It first reads the whole program at a time and then lists down all possible errors. Then after the removal of errors, it executes a program. So it takes very little time to execute a program in comparison to the interpreter.


This type of language translator only translates programs written in assembly level language. It translates assembly level language into machine level language and vice versa.


This is the largest software in a computer system. In real it operates the system. An operating system controls, coordinates, and extends the working capabilities of a computer system.

An operating system can be classified into two classes, i.e.
1- Character User Interface System (CUIs) - DOS, UNIX
2- Graphical user Interface System (GUIs) - windows, Linux


Utility Program

This is the software that is manufactured by the manufacturer and supplied with hardware devices. Sometimes also called a service software. For example, all driver software like Video Graphics driver, audio driver, disk management software, etc.

Application Software 

The software which is designed to fulfill the requirements of a user is called Application Software. There are two types of application software.
 i- Normal Product
ii- Standard Product

Normal Product

The application software which is used and recognized by an individual, a firm, or an institution, etc is called a normal product. Like library management software, railway reservation software, school management software, etc.

Standard Product

The application software which is used and recognized by the whole world is called Standard Product.
For example ms word, ms excel, DTP, Tally, AutoCAD, etc.
Classification of Computer 

All the computing devices can be broadly classified into 3 types.
1- Digital Computer
2- Analog Computer
3- Hybrid Computer

1- Digital Computer 

A digital computer is such a computer that deals only with digits i.e. 0 & 1. It receives data in form of digits and gives out information in digits.
For example, desktop, laptop, tablets, etc

2- Analog Computer

An analog computer receives data in form of any physical changes and gives out results in numbers and quantities. For example, Thermometer, speedometer, barometer, hygrometer, lactometer, etc.

3- Hybrid Computer
This is the third type of computer which possesses (Dharana Kariba) both the qualities of digital and analog computer. It can perform like a digital as well as analog Computer. For example, ECG, ICU, etc.




A digital computer can be classified according to the purpose.

 A- Special Purpose Computer 

The digital computer which possesses a single software and performs a specific single task speedily and efficiently called a special purpose computer. For example, billing machine

B- General Purpose Computer 

The digital computer has a number of software installed inside it and can perform different tasks, called a general-purpose computer. This type of Computer is quite slow and less efficient in comparison to a special purpose computer. For example, PC used in offices, homes, etc.

2- Size Wise

According to size digital computers are of 4 types.
A- Super Computer
B- Mainframe Computer
C- Mini Computer
D- Micro Computer

A- Super Computer -

This type of digital computer is the largest computer in the field of IT. It works with a great speed with a heavy storage facility. It's working speed is picosecond. It allows 500 users to work on it at a time. Particularly used in the science and research technology sector. Like NASA, ISRO, etc.
B- Mainframe Computer

A mainframe computer is the second-largest computer in the world. It allows 200 users to work on it. It's working speed is a nanosecond. Such a type of Computer is mostly used in large firms and banking sectors.

C- MINI Computer


This is the third-largest computer which allows 50 users at a time to work on it. It's working speed is a microsecond. Normally such types of computers used in small firms, institutions, etc.



This is the smallest digital computer in size. All the above computers noted down are all multi-user and multi-tasking computers. But this allows a single user at a time to work on it. It's working speed is mili second. Such type of Computer used personally. For example desktop, laptop, etc.

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