**ABACUS**

An ABACUS is a mechanical device used to help an individual in performing mathematical calculations.

⦁ The abacus was invented in China during 3000 B.C.

⦁ It was used to perform basic arithmetic operations.

⦁ This was also called SOROBAN.

Abacus Image |

**Pascaline (Pascal’s Adding Machine**

- Invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642 for his father who was a tax officer in France.
- It was only capable of performing addition and subtraction.
- It was too expensive.

After some year Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz,

a German mathematician adds another two

features multiplication and division to this calculator.

**Logarithm**

The term logarithm is a combination of two Greek words i.e. LOG means ratio and ARITHM mean number. Logarithm was invented in the year 1614 by Jhon Napier, a Scottish landowner known as a mathematician, physicist, and astronomer.

He was the 8th Laird of Merchiston. When he first invented the logarithm, he had no ideas about the base of the logarithm. Later in 1617 Prof. Henry Briggs ((February 1561 – 26 January 1630) was an English mathematician notable for changing the original logarithms invented by John Napier into common (base 10) logarithms, which are sometimes known as Briggsian logarithms in his honor.) defined the base and tabulated logarithm.

**Charles Babbage**

Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath. A 19th-century mathematics professor at Cambridge University, philosopher, inventor, and mechanical engineer, Considered as "father of the computer".

Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer. Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex electronic designs, though all the essential ideas of modern computers are to be found in Babbage's Analytical Engine.

**Difference Engine and Analytical Engine **

• It’s an Automatic, mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions.

• Invented by Charles Babbage (Father of Computer) in 1822 and 1837.

• It was the first mechanical computer.

(Difference Engine-14 Jun 1822)

(Analytical Engine-1837)

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